Six months hence, vol. 3 of 3: being passages from the life of maria (née) secretan (classic reprint) - Six Months Hence, Vol. 3 of 3: Being Passages From the.



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1 Department of Health Science, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius
2 Faculty of Law and Management, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius
3 Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius

Copyright © 2013 Ashmika Motee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth, health, and development of children to their full potential [ 1 ]. It has been recognized worldwide that breastfeeding is beneficial for both the mother and child, as breast milk is considered the best source of nutrition for an infant [ 2 ].

A survey-based study was conducted on a group of 500 mothers in 2011 (from August 2011 to January 2012) to elicit information about infant feeding practices by the use of a properly designed questionnaire given to mothers in Area Health Centres (AHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs) both in rural and urban areas of the island. Research has been granted approval by the University Research Ethics Committee, and prior consents were obtained from all participants.

A sample of the female population consisting of mothers aged 18–45 years was considered since they are adults and are mature enough to participate in the study. In addition, the sampling was based on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Two illustrations involving salt water demonstrate how osmosis can produce disastrous effects in living things. If you put a carrot in salty water, the salt water will "draw" the water from inside the carrot—which, like the human body and most other forms of life, is mostly made up of water. Within a few hours, the carrot will be limp, its cells shriveled.

How, then, do fish and other forms of marine life survive in a salt-water environment? In most cases, a creature whose natural habitat is the ocean has a much higher solute concentration in its cells than does a land animal. Hence, for them, salt water is an isotonic solution, or one that has the same concentration of solute—and hence the same osmotic pressure—as in their own cells.

Plants depend on osmosis to move water from their roots to their leaves. The further toward the edge or the top of the plant, the greater the solute concentration, which creates a difference in osmotic pressure. This is known as osmotic potential, which draws water upward. In addition, osmosis protects leaves against losing water through evaporation.

Crucial to the operation of osmosis in plants are "guard cells," specialized cells dispersed along the surface of the leaves. Each pair of guard cells surrounds a stoma, or pore, controlling its ability to open and thus release moisture.

In some situations, external stimuli such as sunlight may cause the guard cells to draw in potassium from other cells. This leads to an increase in osmotic potential: the guard cell becomes like a person who has eaten a dry biscuit, and is now desperate for a drink of water to wash it down. As a result of its increased osmotic potential, the guard cell eventually takes on water through osmosis. The guard cells then swell with water, opening the stomata and increasing the rate of gas exchange through them. The outcome of this action is an increase in the rate of photosynthesis and plant growth.

When there is a water shortage, however, other cells transmit signals to the guard cells that cause them to release their potassium. This decreases their osmotic potential, and water passes out of the guard cells to the thirsty cells around them. At the same time, the resultant shrinkage in the guard cells closes the stomata, decreasing the rate at which water transpires through them and preventing the plant from wilting.

To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, enter your email address in the box below.

1 Department of Health Science, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius
2 Faculty of Law and Management, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius
3 Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius

Copyright © 2013 Ashmika Motee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood is essential to ensure the growth, health, and development of children to their full potential [ 1 ]. It has been recognized worldwide that breastfeeding is beneficial for both the mother and child, as breast milk is considered the best source of nutrition for an infant [ 2 ].

A survey-based study was conducted on a group of 500 mothers in 2011 (from August 2011 to January 2012) to elicit information about infant feeding practices by the use of a properly designed questionnaire given to mothers in Area Health Centres (AHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs) both in rural and urban areas of the island. Research has been granted approval by the University Research Ethics Committee, and prior consents were obtained from all participants.

A sample of the female population consisting of mothers aged 18–45 years was considered since they are adults and are mature enough to participate in the study. In addition, the sampling was based on the following inclusion and exclusion criteria.




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