# Present and alternative methods of pricing eggs (classic reprint) - Complementary and Alternative Medicine. CAM information.

The coming into vogue of such expressions as "complementary health care" and "complementary medicine" ensued. "Complementary" derives from a Latin verb that means "to fill." It suggests removing, or contributing to the removal of, a defect in a word, completing. In the field of biomedicine (science-oriented medicine), the term "complementary" traditionally refers to accessory or adjunctive, and particularly psychological, modes of patient care a physician's bedside manner, for example. In the realm of nonstandard medicine, onetime "alternatives" have largely become alleged complements ("completers") promoted as companions to biomedical methods.

The NIH cautions readers not to seek the therapies described in this document for serious health problems without consultation with a licensed physician. The NIH further cautions that many of the therapies described have not been subjected to rigorous scientific investigation to prove safety or efficacy; and many have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [emphasis in original]

Yet ACH proponents often misrepresent the Chantilly Report as a highly factual resource approved by the NIH. The disclaimer portions of the foreword have not been adequately publicized. The public would have been better served if they had been printed on every page.

On October 20, 1998, Congress passed legislation that promoted the OAM to a more self-directed entity: a "Center" with an initial appropriation of $50 million the Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Broadly, "quackery" refers to the pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods of a quack any person who is unqualified or incompetent in the field to which his or her pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods pertain. The word "quack" traces to two Dutch words: the obsolete verb quacken, which meant "to chatter or prattle," and salf, a relative of the English word "salve." Old-time quacksalvers were simply persons who bragged about the medicinals they offered. In 1983 and 1984 respectively, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives independently concluded that medical quackery was the leading cause of harmful consumer fraud targeting the elderly in the U.S. The House report defined "quack" as "anyone who promotes medical schemes or remedies known to be false, or which are unproven, for a profit." Corrective efforts followed. In 1986 an FDA-funded national survey yielded the finding that the use of dubious health-related products was substantial. Consumer protection efforts in this area reached their apex when Congress passed the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). The coming into vogue of such expressions as "complementary health care" and "complementary medicine" ensued. "Complementary" derives from a Latin verb that means "to fill." It suggests removing, or contributing to the removal of, a defect in a word, completing. In the field of biomedicine (science-oriented medicine), the term "complementary" traditionally refers to accessory or adjunctive, and particularly psychological, modes of patient care a physician's bedside manner, for example. In the realm of nonstandard medicine, onetime "alternatives" have largely become alleged complements ("completers") promoted as companions to biomedical methods. The NIH cautions readers not to seek the therapies described in this document for serious health problems without consultation with a licensed physician. The NIH further cautions that many of the therapies described have not been subjected to rigorous scientific investigation to prove safety or efficacy; and many have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [emphasis in original] Yet ACH proponents often misrepresent the Chantilly Report as a highly factual resource approved by the NIH. The disclaimer portions of the foreword have not been adequately publicized. The public would have been better served if they had been printed on every page. On October 20, 1998, Congress passed legislation that promoted the OAM to a more self-directed entity: a "Center" with an initial appropriation of$50 million the Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Broadly, "quackery" refers to the pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods of a quack any person who is unqualified or incompetent in the field to which his or her pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods pertain. The word "quack" traces to two Dutch words: the obsolete verb quacken, which meant "to chatter or prattle," and salf, a relative of the English word "salve." Old-time quacksalvers were simply persons who bragged about the medicinals they offered.

In 1983 and 1984 respectively, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives independently concluded that medical quackery was the leading cause of harmful consumer fraud targeting the elderly in the U.S. The House report defined "quack" as "anyone who promotes medical schemes or remedies known to be false, or which are unproven, for a profit." Corrective efforts followed. In 1986 an FDA-funded national survey yielded the finding that the use of dubious health-related products was substantial. Consumer protection efforts in this area reached their apex when Congress passed the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA).

In finance , the net present value ( NPV ) or net present worth ( NPW ) [1] is a measurement of profit calculated by subtracting the present values (PV) of cash outflows (including initial cost) from the present values of cash inflows over a period of time . [2] Incoming and outgoing cash flows can also be described as benefit and cost cash flows, respectively. [3]

In the case when all future cash flows are positive, or incoming (such as the principal and coupon payment of a bond ) the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the NPV is simply the PV of future cash flows minus the purchase price (which is its own PV). NPV can be described as the "difference amount" between the sums of discounted cash inflows and cash outflows. It compares the present value of money today to the present value of money in the future, taking inflation and returns into account.

The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputs a price. The converse process in DCF analysis—taking a sequence of cash flows and a price as input and inferring as output a discount rate (the discount rate which would yield the given price as NPV)—is called the yield and is more widely used in bond trading.

Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value (PV). Then all are summed. Therefore, NPV is the sum of all terms,

The result of this formula is multiplied with the Annual Net cash in-flows and reduced by Initial Cash outlay the present value but in cases where the cash flows are not equal in amount, then the previous formula will be used to determine the present value of each cash flow separately. Any cash flow within 12 months will not be discounted for NPV purpose, nevertheless the usual initial investments during the first year R 0 are summed up a negative cash flow. [6]

Given the (period, cash flow) pairs ( t {\displaystyle t} , R t {\displaystyle R_{t}} ) where N {\displaystyle N} is the total number of periods, the net present value N P V {\displaystyle \mathrm {NPV} } is given by:

Since the 1950s, this type of fiction has, to a large extent, merged with science fiction tropes involving time travel between alternate histories, psychic awareness of the existence of one universe by the people in another, or time travel that results in history splitting into two or more timelines . Cross-time, time-splitting, and alternate history themes have become so closely interwoven that it is impossible to discuss them fully apart from one another.

In Spanish , French , German , Portuguese , Italian , Catalan and Galician , the genre of alternate history is sometimes called uchronie / ucronia / ucronía / Uchronie , which has given rise to the term Uchronia in English. This neologism is based on the prefix ου- (which in Ancient Greek means "not/not any/no") and the Greek χρόνος ( chronos ) , meaning "time." A uchronia means literally "(in) no time." This term apparently also inspired the name of the alternate history book list, uchronia.net . [5]

The Collins English Dictionary defines alternative history as "a genre of fiction in which the author speculates on how the course of history might have been altered if a particular historical event had had a different outcome." [1] According to Steven H Silver , an American science fiction editor, alternate history requires three things: a point of divergence from the history of our world prior to the time at which the author is writing, a change that would alter history as it is known, and an examination of the ramifications of that change. [6]

Several genres of fiction have been misidentified as alternate history. Science fiction set in what was the future but is now the past, like Arthur C. Clarke 's 2001: A Space Odyssey or George Orwell 's Nineteen Eighty-Four , is not alternate history because the author did not make the choice to change the past at the time of writing. [6] Secret history , which can take the form of fiction or nonfiction, documents events that may or may not have happened historically but did not have an effect on the overall outcome of history, and so is not to be confused with alternate history. [6] [7]

Alternate history is related to, but distinct from, counterfactual history . This term is used by some professional historians to describe the practice of using thoroughly researched and carefully reasoned speculations on "what might have happened if..." as a tool of academic historical research, as opposed to a literary device. [8]

The earliest example of alternate (or counterfactual) history is found in Livy 's Ab Urbe Condita Libri (book IX, sections 17–19). Livy contemplated an alternative 4th century BC in which Alexander the Great had expanded his empire westward instead of eastward; he asked, "What would have been the results for Rome if she had been engaged in a war with Alexander?" [9] [10] [11] Livy concluded that the Romans would likely have defeated Alexander. [12]

The coming into vogue of such expressions as "complementary health care" and "complementary medicine" ensued. "Complementary" derives from a Latin verb that means "to fill." It suggests removing, or contributing to the removal of, a defect in a word, completing. In the field of biomedicine (science-oriented medicine), the term "complementary" traditionally refers to accessory or adjunctive, and particularly psychological, modes of patient care a physician's bedside manner, for example. In the realm of nonstandard medicine, onetime "alternatives" have largely become alleged complements ("completers") promoted as companions to biomedical methods.

The NIH cautions readers not to seek the therapies described in this document for serious health problems without consultation with a licensed physician. The NIH further cautions that many of the therapies described have not been subjected to rigorous scientific investigation to prove safety or efficacy; and many have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. [emphasis in original]

Yet ACH proponents often misrepresent the Chantilly Report as a highly factual resource approved by the NIH. The disclaimer portions of the foreword have not been adequately publicized. The public would have been better served if they had been printed on every page.

On October 20, 1998, Congress passed legislation that promoted the OAM to a more self-directed entity: a "Center" with an initial appropriation of \$50 million the Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Broadly, "quackery" refers to the pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods of a quack any person who is unqualified or incompetent in the field to which his or her pretensions, misrepresentations, practices, and methods pertain. The word "quack" traces to two Dutch words: the obsolete verb quacken, which meant "to chatter or prattle," and salf, a relative of the English word "salve." Old-time quacksalvers were simply persons who bragged about the medicinals they offered.

In 1983 and 1984 respectively, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives independently concluded that medical quackery was the leading cause of harmful consumer fraud targeting the elderly in the U.S. The House report defined "quack" as "anyone who promotes medical schemes or remedies known to be false, or which are unproven, for a profit." Corrective efforts followed. In 1986 an FDA-funded national survey yielded the finding that the use of dubious health-related products was substantial. Consumer protection efforts in this area reached their apex when Congress passed the 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA).

In finance , the net present value ( NPV ) or net present worth ( NPW ) [1] is a measurement of profit calculated by subtracting the present values (PV) of cash outflows (including initial cost) from the present values of cash inflows over a period of time . [2] Incoming and outgoing cash flows can also be described as benefit and cost cash flows, respectively. [3]

In the case when all future cash flows are positive, or incoming (such as the principal and coupon payment of a bond ) the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the NPV is simply the PV of future cash flows minus the purchase price (which is its own PV). NPV can be described as the "difference amount" between the sums of discounted cash inflows and cash outflows. It compares the present value of money today to the present value of money in the future, taking inflation and returns into account.

The NPV of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputs a price. The converse process in DCF analysis—taking a sequence of cash flows and a price as input and inferring as output a discount rate (the discount rate which would yield the given price as NPV)—is called the yield and is more widely used in bond trading.

Each cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value (PV). Then all are summed. Therefore, NPV is the sum of all terms,

The result of this formula is multiplied with the Annual Net cash in-flows and reduced by Initial Cash outlay the present value but in cases where the cash flows are not equal in amount, then the previous formula will be used to determine the present value of each cash flow separately. Any cash flow within 12 months will not be discounted for NPV purpose, nevertheless the usual initial investments during the first year R 0 are summed up a negative cash flow. [6]

Given the (period, cash flow) pairs ( t {\displaystyle t} , R t {\displaystyle R_{t}} ) where N {\displaystyle N} is the total number of periods, the net present value N P V {\displaystyle \mathrm {NPV} } is given by:

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