Persistence of vision color luts - The Persistence of Vision



Let's all be honest, animation works like magic. You're a wizard of the page. How does animation work though? Let's break it down into some detail so we can understand what dark arts we are drawing upon.

The prevailing idea for a long time was the persistence of vision was the reason animation worked. While it is partially true, now we understand that there is more in play than simply just persistence of vision.

Persistence of vision is the fact that your eyes seem to retain an image for a split second after the image has vanished from your view. It's kind of like when you look out a window on a sunny day and close your eyes real tight, you can still kind of see the basic shapes of what you were looking at. It's not that same exact principle since that has to do with light more and your retinas readjusting to the dark, but it's the same idea.

Remember those old bird and cage toys? Like this one that Johnny Depp's mom shows him in Sleepy Hollow.  Those are called thaumatropes. Don't worry that won't be on the final exam, those work by the principle of persistence of vision. Your eye retains that there is both a bird and a cage slightly after they switch images, causing the illusion that the bird is inside the cage when really they are two separate pictures.

Now in animation, we have a series of images that string together to make a movement. For a long time, people presumed it was because of the persistence of vision, that our mind would retain the frame for a split second as we blended it with the new frame to create the movement.

So you know when you're walking down the street and you blink and you're like; "Whoa, where did everything go?!" No? Well, that's good cause that'd be a huge pain and very scary. Luckily for us, our brain ignores all of those blinks so we don't constantly see a flash of black every few seconds.  A film camera works very similarly to a human eye , it has a rolling shutter that blocks out the picture while the image is changing. That way we only see the full frames and not any weird half frames as the film advances.

Let's all be honest, animation works like magic. You're a wizard of the page. How does animation work though? Let's break it down into some detail so we can understand what dark arts we are drawing upon.

The prevailing idea for a long time was the persistence of vision was the reason animation worked. While it is partially true, now we understand that there is more in play than simply just persistence of vision.

Persistence of vision is the fact that your eyes seem to retain an image for a split second after the image has vanished from your view. It's kind of like when you look out a window on a sunny day and close your eyes real tight, you can still kind of see the basic shapes of what you were looking at. It's not that same exact principle since that has to do with light more and your retinas readjusting to the dark, but it's the same idea.

Remember those old bird and cage toys? Like this one that Johnny Depp's mom shows him in Sleepy Hollow.  Those are called thaumatropes. Don't worry that won't be on the final exam, those work by the principle of persistence of vision. Your eye retains that there is both a bird and a cage slightly after they switch images, causing the illusion that the bird is inside the cage when really they are two separate pictures.

Now in animation, we have a series of images that string together to make a movement. For a long time, people presumed it was because of the persistence of vision, that our mind would retain the frame for a split second as we blended it with the new frame to create the movement.

So you know when you're walking down the street and you blink and you're like; "Whoa, where did everything go?!" No? Well, that's good cause that'd be a huge pain and very scary. Luckily for us, our brain ignores all of those blinks so we don't constantly see a flash of black every few seconds.  A film camera works very similarly to a human eye , it has a rolling shutter that blocks out the picture while the image is changing. That way we only see the full frames and not any weird half frames as the film advances.

Death Stars were destroyed twice in the Star Wars movies and yet one still lives on in this 168 LED persistence of vision globe made by an MEng group at the University of Leeds in the UK. While Death Stars are in high demand, they mounted it on an axis tilted 23.4° (the same as the Earth) so that they can show the Earth overlaid with weather information, the ISS position, or a world clock.

More details are available on their system overview page but briefly: rotating inside and mounted on the axis is a Raspberry Pi sending either video or still images through its HDMI port to a custom made FPGA-based HDMI decoder board.  That board then controls 14 LED driver boards mounted on a well-balanced aluminum ring. All that requires 75W which is passed through a four-phase commutator. Rotation speed is 300 RPM with a frame rate of 10 FPS and as you can see in the videos below, it works quite well.

Everyone knows you can’t visibly bend light over short distances in free air. Or can you? [Jack Pearse] has figured out a way to do it though , or at least make it appear that way. He does it by combining a trick of math and a trick of the eye. The secret is the hyperboloid , a geometric construct described by a quadratic equation. [Jack’s] creation is more specifically a hyperboloid in one sheet. This type of structure allows straight lines to create a an overall curved surface.  Hyperboloids have been used by architects and in construction for years , often in tall structures like water towers.

If a bunch of straight steel beams can form a curved shape, lasers should be able to pull off the same effect. By employing persistence of vision, [Jack] was able to create his hyperboloid with only 10 small lasers. The lasers are mounted on the rim of a bicycle wheel and carefully aimed. The wheel is spun up with using an electric bicycle motor. [Jack] kept things safe by building a centrifugal switch. The switch powers up all the lasers in when the tire is spinning. This ensures no one can be hit by a static beam.

Once the wheel is spinning, all you need is a bit of smoke or haze in the room. The spinning lasers combine to form the hyperboloid shape. You can see the project in action in the video after the break.

As the story goes, years ago [Matt Evans] was wooing the beautiful and talented [Jen]. There were many suitors vying for her hand; he would have to set himself apart. The trouble was, how to convince her that persisting in the relationship was the best and only course? What did he have to offer? Of course many of us know the answer; having wooed our own significant others with the same thing. Incredible and unrepentant nerdiness.

When you look through a narrow slit, you can see only a thin strip of the world around you. But if you move the slit around rapidly, your eye and brain combine these thin strips to make a single complete picture.

Close one eye. Cup your hand around the tube to make a cushion between the tube and your eye and prevent light from leaking in. Put your open eye to the open end of the tube.  Hold the tube so that the slit is vertical.

When the slit is stationary, you can’t see much. Keep your head and body still and sweep the far end of the tube back and forth slowly while you look through it. (Make sure the area around you is clear.) Increase the scanning speed and compare the views. Notice that when you sweep the tube quickly from side to side, you can see a remarkably clear view of your surroundings.

Your eye and brain retain a visual impression for about 1/30 of a second. (The exact time depends on the brightness of the image.) This ability to retain an image is known as persistence of vision .

As you swing the tube from side to side, the eye is presented with a succession of narrow, slit-shaped images. When you move the tube fast enough, your brain retains the images long enough to build up a complete image of your surroundings.

Different technologies take advantage of human persistence of vision. For example, when we watch a movie, it feels like a continuous experience even though the screen is dark about half the time. Films show one new frame every 1/24 of a second. Depending on the film, each frame is shown twice or three times during this period. The eye retains the image of each frame long enough to give us the illusion of smooth motion. Even newer TV and computer monitors take advantage of our failure to notice the constant and steady refreshing of images right in front of us.

Let's all be honest, animation works like magic. You're a wizard of the page. How does animation work though? Let's break it down into some detail so we can understand what dark arts we are drawing upon.

The prevailing idea for a long time was the persistence of vision was the reason animation worked. While it is partially true, now we understand that there is more in play than simply just persistence of vision.

Persistence of vision is the fact that your eyes seem to retain an image for a split second after the image has vanished from your view. It's kind of like when you look out a window on a sunny day and close your eyes real tight, you can still kind of see the basic shapes of what you were looking at. It's not that same exact principle since that has to do with light more and your retinas readjusting to the dark, but it's the same idea.

Remember those old bird and cage toys? Like this one that Johnny Depp's mom shows him in Sleepy Hollow.  Those are called thaumatropes. Don't worry that won't be on the final exam, those work by the principle of persistence of vision. Your eye retains that there is both a bird and a cage slightly after they switch images, causing the illusion that the bird is inside the cage when really they are two separate pictures.

Now in animation, we have a series of images that string together to make a movement. For a long time, people presumed it was because of the persistence of vision, that our mind would retain the frame for a split second as we blended it with the new frame to create the movement.

So you know when you're walking down the street and you blink and you're like; "Whoa, where did everything go?!" No? Well, that's good cause that'd be a huge pain and very scary. Luckily for us, our brain ignores all of those blinks so we don't constantly see a flash of black every few seconds.  A film camera works very similarly to a human eye , it has a rolling shutter that blocks out the picture while the image is changing. That way we only see the full frames and not any weird half frames as the film advances.

Death Stars were destroyed twice in the Star Wars movies and yet one still lives on in this 168 LED persistence of vision globe made by an MEng group at the University of Leeds in the UK. While Death Stars are in high demand, they mounted it on an axis tilted 23.4° (the same as the Earth) so that they can show the Earth overlaid with weather information, the ISS position, or a world clock.

More details are available on their system overview page but briefly: rotating inside and mounted on the axis is a Raspberry Pi sending either video or still images through its HDMI port to a custom made FPGA-based HDMI decoder board.  That board then controls 14 LED driver boards mounted on a well-balanced aluminum ring. All that requires 75W which is passed through a four-phase commutator. Rotation speed is 300 RPM with a frame rate of 10 FPS and as you can see in the videos below, it works quite well.

Everyone knows you can’t visibly bend light over short distances in free air. Or can you? [Jack Pearse] has figured out a way to do it though , or at least make it appear that way. He does it by combining a trick of math and a trick of the eye. The secret is the hyperboloid , a geometric construct described by a quadratic equation. [Jack’s] creation is more specifically a hyperboloid in one sheet. This type of structure allows straight lines to create a an overall curved surface.  Hyperboloids have been used by architects and in construction for years , often in tall structures like water towers.

If a bunch of straight steel beams can form a curved shape, lasers should be able to pull off the same effect. By employing persistence of vision, [Jack] was able to create his hyperboloid with only 10 small lasers. The lasers are mounted on the rim of a bicycle wheel and carefully aimed. The wheel is spun up with using an electric bicycle motor. [Jack] kept things safe by building a centrifugal switch. The switch powers up all the lasers in when the tire is spinning. This ensures no one can be hit by a static beam.

Once the wheel is spinning, all you need is a bit of smoke or haze in the room. The spinning lasers combine to form the hyperboloid shape. You can see the project in action in the video after the break.

As the story goes, years ago [Matt Evans] was wooing the beautiful and talented [Jen]. There were many suitors vying for her hand; he would have to set himself apart. The trouble was, how to convince her that persisting in the relationship was the best and only course? What did he have to offer? Of course many of us know the answer; having wooed our own significant others with the same thing. Incredible and unrepentant nerdiness.

Let's all be honest, animation works like magic. You're a wizard of the page. How does animation work though? Let's break it down into some detail so we can understand what dark arts we are drawing upon.

The prevailing idea for a long time was the persistence of vision was the reason animation worked. While it is partially true, now we understand that there is more in play than simply just persistence of vision.

Persistence of vision is the fact that your eyes seem to retain an image for a split second after the image has vanished from your view. It's kind of like when you look out a window on a sunny day and close your eyes real tight, you can still kind of see the basic shapes of what you were looking at. It's not that same exact principle since that has to do with light more and your retinas readjusting to the dark, but it's the same idea.

Remember those old bird and cage toys? Like this one that Johnny Depp's mom shows him in Sleepy Hollow.  Those are called thaumatropes. Don't worry that won't be on the final exam, those work by the principle of persistence of vision. Your eye retains that there is both a bird and a cage slightly after they switch images, causing the illusion that the bird is inside the cage when really they are two separate pictures.

Now in animation, we have a series of images that string together to make a movement. For a long time, people presumed it was because of the persistence of vision, that our mind would retain the frame for a split second as we blended it with the new frame to create the movement.

So you know when you're walking down the street and you blink and you're like; "Whoa, where did everything go?!" No? Well, that's good cause that'd be a huge pain and very scary. Luckily for us, our brain ignores all of those blinks so we don't constantly see a flash of black every few seconds.  A film camera works very similarly to a human eye , it has a rolling shutter that blocks out the picture while the image is changing. That way we only see the full frames and not any weird half frames as the film advances.

Death Stars were destroyed twice in the Star Wars movies and yet one still lives on in this 168 LED persistence of vision globe made by an MEng group at the University of Leeds in the UK. While Death Stars are in high demand, they mounted it on an axis tilted 23.4° (the same as the Earth) so that they can show the Earth overlaid with weather information, the ISS position, or a world clock.

More details are available on their system overview page but briefly: rotating inside and mounted on the axis is a Raspberry Pi sending either video or still images through its HDMI port to a custom made FPGA-based HDMI decoder board.  That board then controls 14 LED driver boards mounted on a well-balanced aluminum ring. All that requires 75W which is passed through a four-phase commutator. Rotation speed is 300 RPM with a frame rate of 10 FPS and as you can see in the videos below, it works quite well.

Everyone knows you can’t visibly bend light over short distances in free air. Or can you? [Jack Pearse] has figured out a way to do it though , or at least make it appear that way. He does it by combining a trick of math and a trick of the eye. The secret is the hyperboloid , a geometric construct described by a quadratic equation. [Jack’s] creation is more specifically a hyperboloid in one sheet. This type of structure allows straight lines to create a an overall curved surface.  Hyperboloids have been used by architects and in construction for years , often in tall structures like water towers.

If a bunch of straight steel beams can form a curved shape, lasers should be able to pull off the same effect. By employing persistence of vision, [Jack] was able to create his hyperboloid with only 10 small lasers. The lasers are mounted on the rim of a bicycle wheel and carefully aimed. The wheel is spun up with using an electric bicycle motor. [Jack] kept things safe by building a centrifugal switch. The switch powers up all the lasers in when the tire is spinning. This ensures no one can be hit by a static beam.

Once the wheel is spinning, all you need is a bit of smoke or haze in the room. The spinning lasers combine to form the hyperboloid shape. You can see the project in action in the video after the break.

As the story goes, years ago [Matt Evans] was wooing the beautiful and talented [Jen]. There were many suitors vying for her hand; he would have to set himself apart. The trouble was, how to convince her that persisting in the relationship was the best and only course? What did he have to offer? Of course many of us know the answer; having wooed our own significant others with the same thing. Incredible and unrepentant nerdiness.

When you look through a narrow slit, you can see only a thin strip of the world around you. But if you move the slit around rapidly, your eye and brain combine these thin strips to make a single complete picture.

Close one eye. Cup your hand around the tube to make a cushion between the tube and your eye and prevent light from leaking in. Put your open eye to the open end of the tube.  Hold the tube so that the slit is vertical.

When the slit is stationary, you can’t see much. Keep your head and body still and sweep the far end of the tube back and forth slowly while you look through it. (Make sure the area around you is clear.) Increase the scanning speed and compare the views. Notice that when you sweep the tube quickly from side to side, you can see a remarkably clear view of your surroundings.

Your eye and brain retain a visual impression for about 1/30 of a second. (The exact time depends on the brightness of the image.) This ability to retain an image is known as persistence of vision .

As you swing the tube from side to side, the eye is presented with a succession of narrow, slit-shaped images. When you move the tube fast enough, your brain retains the images long enough to build up a complete image of your surroundings.

Different technologies take advantage of human persistence of vision. For example, when we watch a movie, it feels like a continuous experience even though the screen is dark about half the time. Films show one new frame every 1/24 of a second. Depending on the film, each frame is shown twice or three times during this period. The eye retains the image of each frame long enough to give us the illusion of smooth motion. Even newer TV and computer monitors take advantage of our failure to notice the constant and steady refreshing of images right in front of us.

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